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Mechanical properties of ceramic materials

The mechanical properties of materials are those that define their behaviour when exposed to external forces. There are several types of external forces capable of generating mechanical responses in materials, for example, tensile, compressive and torsional forces. 

It is important to take into account the forces that will be applied in each industrial process, as these will determine the choice of the most suitable materials for each one. 

Thanks to the development of new ceramic materials, the mechanical properties of conventional ceramics have been greatly improved and in specific cases can surpass those of the steels used until now. 

Propiedades mecánicas de la cerámica técnica avanzada 

The mechanical properties of advanced technical ceramics are: 

  • Very high hardness, far exceeding that of steel, which makes it possible to work with hardened metals without premature wear of the ceramic. 
  • The strength of technical ceramics establishes a relationship between the forces applied and the stresses and displacements produced by them. Impacts, bending, compression, sliding… are some of the forces to which these ceramic elements are subjected in modern industry.  
  • Density: With a density of about 6 g/cm3, ceramics are lighter than steel, reducing the weight of the different elements manufactured in technical ceramics. Silicon nitride, for example, is the lightest with a density of 3.2 g/cm3.  
  • The toughness of the new ceramic materials allows it to absorb impacts, preventing it from breaking in processes where there is contact between parts. The energy required to reach the breaking point is increasingly higher and allows these materials to be used in increasingly demanding situations. 

At Steelceram we have more than 20 years in the advanced technical ceramics sector.

Other characteristics of technical ceramics

In addition to the mechanical properties of technical ceramics, there are also dielectric properties, high resistance to thermal shock and the ability to withstand very high temperatures. This combination of properties allows technical ceramics to be subjected to increasingly demanding industrial processes. Technical ceramics therefore continue to compete with and replace materials such as steel and titanium, significantly improving some of their properties. 

As can be seen in the graph, technical ceramics are able to compete in certain mechanical properties with other materials. 

Mechanical properties of ceramic materials

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